#2.Most Using Instructions

MOV Instruction

Syntax: MOV destination,source

Copy the contents of the source into destination.Destionation & source size should match.Because,data registers can be accessed in byte, word or double-word sizes(If you don’t remember this data registers, you can access to our first topic from here).


  • MOV register,register
  • MOV register,memory
  • MOV memory,register
  • MOV register,constant
  • MOV memory,constant

Notice: Values can not be loaded into any segment registers(Code Segment,Data Segment, Extra Segment, Stack Segment) directly.First load into a non-segment register and then move.

ADD Instruction

Syntax: ADD operand1,operand2

Adds together its two operands, storing the result in its first operand.


  • ADD register,register
  • ADD register,memory
  • ADD memory,register
  • ADD register,constant
  • ADD memory,constant

Notice: It is not possible to use segment registers.

SUB Instruction

Syntax: SUB operand1,operand2

Stores in the value of its first operand the result of subtracting the value of its second operand from the value of its first operand.Combinations & notice is exactly the same as ADD instruction.

NOP Instruction

NOP instruction does nothing for one clock cycle.Most of the time it is used for timing purposes.

    Example: A simple example in DEBUG environment

INT Instruction

Interrupts processing and runs requested rotine then returns back to the current program to resume processing.

For this purpose INT performs:

  1. Pushes contents of FR(Flag Register) into stack.
  2. Clears the IF(Interrupt Flag) & TF(Trap Flag) in order to, not to take any other interrupt and present step by step execution.
  3. Pushes CS into stack.
  4. Pushes IP into stack.
  5. Perform the requested routine.

To return from an interrupt, stack is popped to related register and this causes a return to the instruction following the INT.Operand of INT instruction gives us the address of group of routines and value in AH register shows us a specific routine in that group.

Example: Current Date

When interrupt is executed it checks the value of AH & by combining operand & AH accesses to the desired routine.When this code is executed, the values in registers AL,CX & DX gives us current date.

If,in this same code;

  • The value of  AL=05,it gives us days of week of your system by number format(0 is Sunday).
  • The value of CX=07DF, it gives us year of your system(2018).
  • The value of DH=0B, it gives us month of your system by number format(11).
  • The value of DL=06, it gives us day of month.

Example: Current Time

When this code is executed, the values in registers CX & DH gives us current time.

If,in this same code;

  • The value of CH used, it gives us hour of your system.
  • The value of CL used, it gives us minute of your system.
  • The value of DH used, it gives us second of your system.

Notice : In order to set system date function code(value of AH) is given as 2B and registers DH, DL & CX is adjusted.

Notice:In order to set system time function code is given as 2D and registers CH, CL & DH is adjusted.

Our Third Topis is “#3.Details Of The Flag Register(FR) And Bit Fields”, for Access Click Here..

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